Регулация и положение на таксиметровите фирми и водачи във Финландия
14 април 2008

Какво е положението с такситата в страните от Европейския съюз?

Тази поредица от материали ще даде малко яснота в България за това какво е положението в Евро съюза, как работят там хората и как Българското правителство ще спази Европейските директиви след около 120 години (най-малко). В момента едно правителство си отива, но на доста хора в България им се струва, че на власт са едни и същи, само лицата за пред телевизия, радио и вестници се сменяват, а положението си остава непроменено, демек реформите кретат с векове.

Започваме с Финландия. Официалният отговор, който ни върнаха:

From Taxi Regulation, Finland

Strict Regulation of the number of licences /
Taxis with quality criteria on access to the profession:
Key figures in Finland
- 10.500 taxis
- 2 taxis per capita (in 1000s)
- Ca 16.000 drivers, including licence holders
- 55 million passengers / year
- 800 million kilometres / year
- Total turnover 750 million E
- Shifts normally 10 hours
- 330 - 350 hours / month / vehicle in bigger cities
The fleet
- 90 % use diesel
- About 70 % are sedan or estate cars
- Ca 30 % minibuses for 8 passengers
- Approximately 1.500 vehicles for disabled persons travelling in wheelchairs
- Also limousines
- Annual vehicle inspection
- Taximeters and taxi signs are compulsory
- All kinds of payment accepted largely
- In bigger cities cars are equipped with safety cameras to prevent violence
- 40 major Dispatch Centers

Taxi drivers requirements
- Permanent driving licence
- Age under 70 years,
- Criminal record check
- Medical certificate
- Exam for the police in knowledge of legislation, fares and local area knowledge
- A taxi drivers course will become obligatory 2009
Access to profession
- Experience as a taxi driver / in Helsinki up to 9 years / country-side less
- Certain solvency criteria, no formal guarantees required
- Good repute
- Three week course in authorised collage plus exam demonstrating professional competence / or specific higher education plus exam

- One licence / car
- No restrictions on amount of licences / operator, but in practice new licences are issued to drivers rather than to existing operators
- Licences are issued according to seniority among qualified applicants
- Licence valid permanently, but criminal record check and financial check yearly
- Licences are not transferable, except for 350 companies in Helsinki, which can be bought and sold until 2017. Basically the same criteria apply to the licence holders of these companies, but long period of taxi driving is not expected.
- Each area has a quota (1.8.2007 ->) which can not be exceeded.
- Licences issued by State Provincial Offices according to seniority.
- Only tax is paid for the licence

Issuing of licences

National legislation applies to the whole country. New law came into force 1st August 2007. State Provincial Offices decide on quotas yearly for each area. What counts when deciding quotas is amount of inhabitants, amount of public transport, possible recreational resorts, amount of employers, possible airport etc. What also counts is other developments on demand on taxi services. Statistics are obtained from the DC. Also possible pressure from the public is taken into account.

 The new licence holder has to start his business at the appointed point of time. He is affiliated to the local DC if there is a DC in the area. This is voluntary, but in practice everybody affiliates. The other possibility is to work only on the spot?market or in the country-side drive from home / taxi station. The DC:s are usually of high quality using both GPS- and GPRS ?solutions. All kinds of credit and smart cards are normally accepted.

The local DC:s drafts driving shift lists for the cars. One shift is approximately 10 hours, but can be prolonged by the DC if needed, for example if the weather turns bad. The car must be working during its shift but can run also outside the shift. As sanctions for breaking rules, the DC can block the car out of the system for some hours or even longer. For instance in Helsinki the list is based on ca 330 ? 350 hours / month / car. This means that the use of a driver is necessary. Usually licence holders drive their own car also. The working time for an employed taxi driver is 11 hours and can in special occasions be prolonged up to 13 hours.

Bigger cities have employed ?taxi inspectors? to guide cars to areas where they are needed, to solve complaints from customers and in general to see that things are working. The inspector can use sanctions also.
Maximum fares for street customers are regulated by Ministry of Transport and Communication (MTC). In practice they function as fixed fares.

In the new law there are certain quality demands that each taxi owner and driver has to fulfil, e.g. secrecy on the customers trips / conversations, obligation to help with the luggage, obligation to drive each trip except in very special cases (shift is ending, threat of violence, a very dirty customer), obligation to keep the car in traffic during the assigned shift etc. It is not yet clear how all the quality demands are controlled (new law 1.8.2007).

Advantages and shortcomings

The scenario of quantity control and strict quality standards is called in the IRU / TOI (2003) study the Street of opportunities. This scenario is characterised in the study as probably having positive effects on innovation and the level of technology in the industry and a strong level of DC affiliation.

We can confirm these conclusions. Other characteristics this scenario seems to imply is a fairly well united group of entrepreneurs, of which approximately 90 % are affiliated to The Finnish Taxi Owners? Federation, a great degree of reliability of services for the customers, a high general quality of service and vehicles, good dispatching and payment systems and an efficient way of running the business as a whole. This is especially important in a country like Finland, which has the lowest population density in the EU countries, with a sparse population and long distances. A lot of the publicly sponsored and very delicate transportation is taken care of by taxis. School children, sick, elderly and disabled persons, delicate parcels (e.g. blood) and also public transport are taken care of by taxis. No special transportation systems are required for these groups since taxis can take care of these rides.

This model has given very stable circumstances to develop the taxi trade. For the taxi owners and drivers this model guarantees a satisfactory income, a possibility to drive a good quality car and invest in technology in the scope of humane working hours. For the national and local associations it means a high percentage of affiliation. This in turn enables the Federation to effectively lobby for the whole taxi business.

Possible shortcomings and weaknesses for the customers are that there is no real competition. There are times when it takes ?too long? for the customer to get a taxi - probably a feature of the taxi trade that can not be solved by any mode of operation. The expectations of the public on taxi services in Finland are so high, that even in the first snow storms, when planes and trains are all late there is not much understanding for the shortage of taxi services. This is a fact the taxi industry has had to deal with year after year.

For the taxi trade occasional difficulties of being able to recruit skilled drivers is a problem and will become an even bigger problem in the future. The drivers in a regulated fare system do not always seem to get enough compensation for long and tedious working hours. They also know that to be able to receive a licence of their own, they first have to work as a driver usually for many years.

At the moment it seems that Finland and Helsinki are quite alone in this scenario. Other European countries and cities have one by one moved to more liberal systems. It seems probable that after some five years Finland might take steps in moving to more liberal / competative direction also. The most probable direction is towards the Quality freeway, with tight quality standards but no or lean quantity control. This is why The Finnish Taxi Owners? Federation and also IRU consider it most important to get the EU Access to Profession Rules to also include taxis.

The demand towards less control usually comes from a part of the public, who think that the high quality and reliability of the present system can be retained, but that the amount of services will grow and the fares become cheaper with more competition being introduced.

It also originates from some authorities, who are thinking purely in terms of competition. It originates also from local authorities, who are tired of dealing with questions of quantity control with pressures both from the side of the public, who occasionally demands more licences and from the side of the trade, who would like to keep the numbers within reasonable boundaries.

In some years the pressure might also originate from the taxi trade itself who is sometimes frustrated with high demands and tight control.

A quality process system being created

The Finnish Taxi Owners Federation together with the Ministry (MTC) is creating a voluntary Quality System where the setting of quality standards and control can be kept in the hands of the taxi trade itself. 13 DC:s have started to build their Quality Systems with the help of the Federation. This includes half of all Finnish taxis. Already three Quality Systems have been certified.

Nina Nizovsky
The Finnish Taxi Owners Federation
Vice President
IRU Taxi Group

Който поназнайва от инглиш вече му е ясно, че докато нашите управници поддържат ТОТАЛИТАРНИ СТРУКТУРИ като ДАИ и си гледат най-вече кожите (опозицята да не им пусне вотче на недоверие и да са на власт, само това ги интересува) бърза промяна няма да има!

Очаквайте превода на Български.

Последна промяна ( 14 април 2008 )